Breakdown Maintenance

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Scenario:

Sometimes, the maintenance work centers need to take immediate action, due to unexpected machine breakdowns, accidents or other malfunctions, even though neither the type nor the scope of the activities required are known.  Maintenance of this nature is referred to as Breakdown Maintenance.

In SAP Plant Maintenance, we can have a process where a production manager or requester will fill out a manual work order form ( ideally the manual form should be identical to the system generated form in SAP ). The technician(s)(mechanic or groups of mechanics) will now execute the job indicated in the maintenance work order form and his findings if any.After all the work is being done, the requester will acknowledge the repairs/work done by the technician. On the next day,the maintenance planner will encode all findings and transactions (like spare parts used, actual duration of the work) in SAP with date based on the Manual Work Order form and performs the technical completion of the maintenance order(TECO). Finance department will run a periodic settlement in which it will post the proper charges to the cost center. After all items are being settled, they fill perform the business completion of the maintenance work order(BUCO) to close the maintenance work order.

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Condition Based Maintenance

ImageScenario:

In the course of an inspection, a system is seen to be in a condition that will require repair in the foreseeable future,  then these findings can be entered as a maintenance notification and passed on to the planning group responsible.

In SAP Plant Maintenance, we can implement a condition-based process where a requester will create a notification in SAP and prints the notification for approval. The engineering manager will then approves the maintenance request made. The maintenance planner will encode the all approved request and prepare for maintenance work order creation. The maintenance planner will now plan,schedule,release(also print) the maintenance work order for corrective maintenance. The technician(s)(mechanic or groups of mechanics) will now execute the job indicated in the maintenance work order form and his findings if any.After all the work is being done, the requester will acknowledge the repairs/work done by the technician. Then, the maintenance planner will encode all findings in SAP and performs the technical completion of the maintenance order(TECO). Finance department will run a periodic settlement in which it will post the proper charges to the cost center. After all items are being settled, they fill perform the business completion of the maintenance work order(BUCO) to close the maintenance work order.

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FEATURES OF A MAINTENANCE ORDER

ImageIn SAP Plant Maintenance, the features of a Maintenance Orders are the following:

  • Flexible order processing

Ideally, the maintenance order must be capable of being opened with a minimum data entry (for example, in the case of a malfunction).  On the other hand, there are some business processes in Maintenance, such as revisions, transfers or new constructions, for which the maintenance order should provide a wide range of functionality – working with external companies, network configuration, permit processes, cost statements, material reservations and others.

  •  Object Reference:

The Maintenance order either refers to one specific object or to a group of any number of objects which can be displayed in an object list in the maintenance order.

  • Period of Validity

An individual order is valid for a specific piece of maintenance work only.  In the case of standing order, however, you do not create a new order every time a new piece of work needs to be done.  The standing order is valid for a certain period of time.  It is created to cover minor repairs, and all times and materials are posted to it.

  •  Execution

Maintenance orders are performed by internal company employees or are outsourced to external companies.

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SCHEDULING OF MAINTENANCE PLANS

ImageIn SAP Plant Maintenance, when a Maintenance Plan is created, the cycle is assigned and defines the interval for the call dates and thus for the creation of orders.

ImageIn addition, different scheduling parameters can be assigned in order to adapt the call dates to various requirements.

– The Cycle Start determines the date from which call dates are to be calculated.

– The Shift Factor enables you to react to early or late confirmation.  They are stated as a    percentage related to the cycle.

Call Dates are calculated on the basis of scheduling parameters.  For each call date, an order is created.

ImageThe changes in the schedules will vary depending on what you declare on the Early/Late Shift Factors and in the Tolerance Level of your Maintenance Plan.

For Example:

A Maintenance Plan shows the shift of a planned date triggered by a late confirmation.  The following parameters are taken as a basis:

Cycle start:  01/03/98                            – Cycle duration:  3 months

Planned dates:  01/06/98, 01/09/98    – Tolerance for late confirmation:  10%

Shift factor:  50%                                   – Confirmation:  15/06/98

ImageThe tolerance always refers to the shortest cycle, so that in this case the tolerance is 9 days (10% of 90 days).  The shift factor always refers to the total number of late days.  As the confirmation date is outside the tolerance of 9 days, the shift factor of 50% of 14 days = 7 days applies.  The newly derived planned date is therefore the 08/09/98 (instead of the 01/09/98).

 

 

SINGLE CYCLE MAINTENANCE PLAN

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■Business process: The same job must be performed at regular intervals
Examples:
• Yearly inspection of fire extinguishers
• Acceptance test every 2 years
• Six yearly inspection of vessels as per pressure vessel regulations.

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■ The processing screen for Single Cycle maintenance plans will be much simpler.
■ It is now possible to enter a maintenance plan and the corresponding maintenance item in one screen.
■ You can also enter a task list number on this screen and assign it to the maintenance item.
■ The following functions can be performed directly via pushbuttons:
         • Create task list
         • Select task list
         • Display task list with direct call up of operation overview
         • Details of the task (for example execution factor)
■ The Table-Control-Technique enables flexible display of the maintenance item list.

In addition, you have scheduling information directly in the maintenance item list.

ImageA Single Cycle Maintenance Plan can have several Maintenance Items.
The maintenance item contains data on the following areas:
  • Planning data:

Maintenance planning plant

Maintenance planner group

Order type

Maintenance activity type

Responsible work center

Business area

  •  Reference object
  •  Intervals

Cycle

Offset

Cycle text

Task list

 

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MAINTENANCE STRATEGY & TASK LIST

ImageThe Maintenance Strategy consist of several maintenance packages. It is the scheduling rule for preventive maintenance.

ImageThe Scheduling Indicator determines the type of scheduling :

Examples:

– time-based

  •     time-based with key date
  •     time-based as per factory calendar
  •     performance-based

A Maintenance Strategy can be assigned with Maintenance Packages.  The packages of a strategy can have different cycle units (for example month, year).  However, they must always have the same dimension (for example time).

ImageMaintenance Packages define how often certain operations are to be performed.As Part of the Maintenance Strategy,  Maintenance packages can be assigned to the operations of a task list.

The Parameters of a Maintenance Package are the following:

– Package number

   – Description

   – Cycle length

   – Unit of measurement

    – Hierarchy

When two packages fall due at the same time, the hierarchy determines which package    is carried out.

    – Offset

The offset determines the first due date of a package.

– Preliminary/follow-up buffer

The preliminary and/or follow-up buffer defines the tolerance of the envisaged start and end dates of a package.

Maintenance Task Lists can be created with preventive maintenance in mind.  The following steps are required to prepare tasks lists for use in Strategy Maintenance Plans. Where a Maintenance Strategy is defined in the Task List Header.

The different Operations of the task list are then assigned to Maintenance Packages to define the frequency at which the operations need to be carried out.

 

 

PLANT MAINTENANCE WORK CENTERS

ImageA work center can be:

  •  A machine
  •  A group of machines
  • A person
  • A group of persons

ImageIn SAP Plant Maintenance, Work Centers can be used in the following ways :

  • Responsible work center in the master record of the equipment or                     functional location.
  • Responsible work center in a maintenance item.
  •  Responsible work center in the task list header.
  •  Work center performing the work, specified in the task list operations
  •  Responsible work center in the order header.
  • Work center performing the work, specified in the order operations.

In SAP the Work Center can contain the following data:

  • The Basic Data contains the general data such as work center type, description, responsibility, and usage, as well as the standard value keys.
  • The Standard Values contain planning values for performing an operation.  On the basis of these planning values and with particular formulas, the system can calculate the costs, execution time, and required capacity of the work center.  The standard value key  and the rule for maintenance  in the work center determine which standard values should or can be specified in the operation and which units of measurement are to be displayed in the operation.
  •  Links create the interrelationship between work centers and other objects within the SAP System.  A work center can be linked to the following objects:

-Cost center

-Qualifications

-Positions

-Persons

 The Function of a Work Center in Plant Maintenance can be the ff:
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  • Costing:  Costing can be used to determine the costs of internal activity.  Its goal is to assign to the various cost objects the cost that were incurred by them.  Costing links the operation to Cost Accounting by means of the cost center and activity type maintained in the operation.  If the work center is used in an operation, standard values can be entered for the activity types specified in the work center.
  •  Scheduling:  Scheduling helps define the dates for carrying out work.  This requires that the time required by the work order operations are compared with the time available in the work center. When  the operations are scheduled, the system determines the start and end dates of the operations on the basis of scheduling formulas specified in the work centers.
  •  Capacity planning:  Capacity planning compares the capacity requirements of the work order operations with the available capacity of the work center.  Via work center hierarchies it is possible to aggregate the available and the required capacity from work centers at a lower level to work centers at a higher level.

A Sample on How SAP PM interact with Other SAP Modules

PM

Detailed representation and management of technical system (location/vehicle assignment)

Planning and processing of maintenance tasks

Automated work order tracking

Preventive maintenance planning/scheduling/execution

Task list / Scope of work

PM Information System/History/Reports

 

MM

Purchasing (PR/PO processing)

Goods Receipt/Invoice Verification

Spare parts usage/inventory control

 

 

FI

Contractor/Vendor Invoices/GL Accounting

Fixed Asset

 

CO

Cost Center accounting

Work Order

Settlement