Material Types

ImageIn SAP MM, there are standard material types;and each type has its own views .

ImageThe standard R/3 System comes with the following material types. The ID used to identify the material type internally appears in parentheses. It is sometimes necessary to know this ID, for example, when defining the attributes of material types in Customizing for the Material Master.

The following Material types found in SAP MM are the following:

  • Additionals (VKHM) are assigned to a material to be sold to ensure its effective presentation to customers. EX : Clothes hangers, Care labels,         Services such as pressing clothing for display or arranging it on hangers.
  •  Advertising media (WERB) are means of presentation used in advertising, grouping together advertising messages about a number of materials.For instance,Printed mail-order catalogs,Computer catalogs on CD-ROM,Promotional fliers.
  • Apparel, seasonal (MODE)
  • Beverages (FGTR)
  •  Competitive products (WETT) are Observing and evaluating the activities of your competitors is essential for optimum market analysis. You can enter basic data on the products of your competitors in material  master records of this material type. By specifying a competitor number, you can assign the product to a particular competitor.
  •  Configurable materials (KMAT)  are materials that can have different variants. For example, an automobile can have different types of paintwork, trim, and engine. The Material is  configurable indicator is already set for this material type in Customizing for the Material Master in Define Attributes of Material Types [Ext.].
  • Empties (industry LEER, retail LGUT) are a type of returnable transport packaging generally subject to a deposit. They can consist of several components grouped together in a bill of material (BOM) that are assigned to a full product. For example, an empty crate and the empty bottles are assigned to the full product beer. Each of the components in the BOM has a separate  material master record.
  •  Finished products (FERT) are produced in-house. Since they cannot be ordered by Purchasing,  a material master record of this material type does not contain purchasing data.
  • Full products (VOLL) are the counterpart to empties. For example, with a crate of lemonade, the  full product is the lemonade itself, while the empties are the individual bottles and the crate.
  • Intra materials (INTR) exist only temporarily between two processing steps. A material master record of this material type contains neither purchasing nor sales data.
  • KANBAN containers (CONT) .This material type is recommended for creating KANBAN containers as a material. In the  standard R/3 System, only the Basic Data view is offered. Using this material type makes  it easy to search for KANBAN containers.
  • Maintenance assemblies (IBAU) are not individual objects, but logical elements to separate technical objects into more clearly defined units in plant maintenance. For example, an  automobile can be a technical object, and the engine, gearbox, chassis, and so on the maintenance assemblies. A material master record of this material type can contain  basic data and classification data.
  • Manufacturer parts (HERS)  parts are materials that can be supplied by different manufacturers and/or vendors who use different manufacturer part numbers to identify the materials.
  • Nonfoods (NOF1) are items sold in grocery stores, other than food.

    Ex: Paper products , MAGAZINES

  • Non stock materials (NLAG) are not held in stock because they are consumed immediately.
  • Non valuated materials (UNBW) are managed on a quantity basis, but not by value.
  • Operating supplies (HIBE) are procured externally and required for the manufacture of other products. A material master record of this material type can contain purchasing data, but not sales data.
  • Packaging materials (VERP) are used to transport goods and come with the goods free
     of charge. A material master record of this material type is managed on both a quantity basis and value basis.
  • Packaging materials (VERP) are used to transport goods and come with the goods free of charge. A material master record of this material type is managed on both a quantity basis and value basis.
  • Perishables (FRIP) are Goods that are perishable in an assortment. For example, Fruit and vegetables,Dairy Prodicts, and Meat
  • Pipeline materials (PIPE) are materials such as oil, power, or water that flow into the production process directly from a pipeline, line, or other type of conduit. Since pipeline materials are always available, they  are not planned.
  • Process materials (PROC) materials are used in the manufacture of co-products. They are not physical entities, but represent production processes. They are useful if production is initiated by the availability of input materials and capacities, and not by material requirements planning.
  • Product groups (PROD) aggregate materials according to certain freely definable criteria. For example, the products may be similar to each other in some way, or they may be finished products that were produced on the same machine.
  • Production resources/tools (FHMI)  procured externally and used in production or plant  maintenance. A material master record of this material type can contain purchasing data,  but not sales data. It is managed on a quantity basis. EX: Jigs and fixtures , Measuring & Test Equipment
  • Raw materials (ROH) are always procured externally and then processed. A material master record of this type contains purchasing data, but not sales data since they cannot be sold.
  • Semi finished products (HALB) be procured externally and manufactured in-house. They are then processed by the company. A material master record of this material type can contain both purchasing and work scheduling data.
  • Services (DIEN)  can be performed internally or procured externally (outsourced). They cannot be stored or transported.I.E, Construction work,  Janitorial/cleaning services,Legal services.
  • Spare parts (ERSA) are used to replace defective parts. They may be kept in stock. A material  master record of this material type can contain purchasing data, but not sales data.
  • Trading goods (HAWA) are always procured externally and then sold. A material master record of this material type can contain purchasing data and sales data.
  • Value-only articles (WERT) represents a group of articles whose inventory is not managed on an article basis. All goods movements for this group of articles are posted to the value-only article.

Enough said. =)

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Processes in Production Planning and Control

ImageProcesses in production planning and production control comprise the following main areas:

  • Sales and operations planning for determining the quantities to be produced.
  • Material requirements planning   to calculate net requirements and component
    requirements, taking into account scrap and lot sizes.
  • Capacity requirements planning for detailed production planning, taking
    into account available capacities.
  • Production control to control and record the production process (create
    production documents, record confirmations)

ImageIn my case, I am more immersed in Production Control .

SINGLE CYCLE MAINTENANCE PLAN

Image
■Business process: The same job must be performed at regular intervals
Examples:
• Yearly inspection of fire extinguishers
• Acceptance test every 2 years
• Six yearly inspection of vessels as per pressure vessel regulations.

Image

■ The processing screen for Single Cycle maintenance plans will be much simpler.
■ It is now possible to enter a maintenance plan and the corresponding maintenance item in one screen.
■ You can also enter a task list number on this screen and assign it to the maintenance item.
■ The following functions can be performed directly via pushbuttons:
         • Create task list
         • Select task list
         • Display task list with direct call up of operation overview
         • Details of the task (for example execution factor)
■ The Table-Control-Technique enables flexible display of the maintenance item list.

In addition, you have scheduling information directly in the maintenance item list.

ImageA Single Cycle Maintenance Plan can have several Maintenance Items.
The maintenance item contains data on the following areas:
  • Planning data:

Maintenance planning plant

Maintenance planner group

Order type

Maintenance activity type

Responsible work center

Business area

  •  Reference object
  •  Intervals

Cycle

Offset

Cycle text

Task list

 

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PLANT MAINTENANCE REFURBISHMENT PROCESS

ImageHere is a sample on how a Refurbishment is being done in Plant Maintenance:

ImageProcurement of spare parts: For certain high-value components you procure spares in order to be able to replace the component immediately in the case of a breakdown.  Procurement of spares is handled by Material Management.  The spares are ordered and delivered.

Withdrawal of repairable spares/return of defective repairable spares: When a repairable spares item becomes defective, then it must be replaced with another suitable one.  The defective part is removed and sent back to the warehouse while a replacement spare part is withdrawn from the warehouse and installed in its place.
Creating a refurbishment order: When the number of defective repairable spares in the warehouse has reached a certain level, the maintenance planner in charge creates a refurbishment order.  The planner defines the timeframe for the refurbishment and plans all the operations materials, tools, etc. required for the refurbishment.
Order release: After planning has been completed, the refurbishment order is released.
Withdrawal from the warehouse: The defective/used repairable spares as well as any additional materials planned in the order which are needed for the refurbishment are withdrawn from the warehouse.
Confirmation: The work done, the refurbishment order is confirmed by the employees concerned.  These confirmations show the work progress.
Return to warehouse: The repaired/refurbished parts are returned to the warehouse in accordance with the planning in the order as a goods receipt.  To this end, you can call up the object list from the refurbishment order as a reference.  It helps you identify individual repairable spares.  If an item cannot be refurbished, cancel the reservation and post it to scrap.
Order completion: The order can be completed as soon as refurbishment is finished.