Breakdown Maintenance

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Scenario:

Sometimes, the maintenance work centers need to take immediate action, due to unexpected machine breakdowns, accidents or other malfunctions, even though neither the type nor the scope of the activities required are known.  Maintenance of this nature is referred to as Breakdown Maintenance.

In SAP Plant Maintenance, we can have a process where a production manager or requester will fill out a manual work order form ( ideally the manual form should be identical to the system generated form in SAP ). The technician(s)(mechanic or groups of mechanics) will now execute the job indicated in the maintenance work order form and his findings if any.After all the work is being done, the requester will acknowledge the repairs/work done by the technician. On the next day,the maintenance planner will encode all findings and transactions (like spare parts used, actual duration of the work) in SAP with date based on the Manual Work Order form and performs the technical completion of the maintenance order(TECO). Finance department will run a periodic settlement in which it will post the proper charges to the cost center. After all items are being settled, they fill perform the business completion of the maintenance work order(BUCO) to close the maintenance work order.

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Condition Based Maintenance

ImageScenario:

In the course of an inspection, a system is seen to be in a condition that will require repair in the foreseeable future,  then these findings can be entered as a maintenance notification and passed on to the planning group responsible.

In SAP Plant Maintenance, we can implement a condition-based process where a requester will create a notification in SAP and prints the notification for approval. The engineering manager will then approves the maintenance request made. The maintenance planner will encode the all approved request and prepare for maintenance work order creation. The maintenance planner will now plan,schedule,release(also print) the maintenance work order for corrective maintenance. The technician(s)(mechanic or groups of mechanics) will now execute the job indicated in the maintenance work order form and his findings if any.After all the work is being done, the requester will acknowledge the repairs/work done by the technician. Then, the maintenance planner will encode all findings in SAP and performs the technical completion of the maintenance order(TECO). Finance department will run a periodic settlement in which it will post the proper charges to the cost center. After all items are being settled, they fill perform the business completion of the maintenance work order(BUCO) to close the maintenance work order.

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Material Number & Industry Sector

ImageIn SAP-MM, We can define a Material Number uniquely identifying a material master record. We can assign mnemonic keys or nonmnemonic keys as material numbers, depending on the method your company prefers. For this reason, we can  have the following types of number assignment in SAP:

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    External Number Assignment : If your company uses mnemonic keys (normally alphanumeric), you enter the character string you want to use as the material number when you create the material master record.
  • Internal Number Assignment :If your company uses nonmnemonic keys, you do not enter a material number when creating a material master record. Instead, the system assigns a consecutive number to the material. This number is visible when you maintain the material master record.

For Industry Sectors ,when we create a material master record, we are required to classify the material according to industry sector and material type. Like material types, industry sectors have control functions in the R/3 System. For example, it is a factor determining the screen sequence and field selection in a material master record. Once you have assigned an industry sector to a material, you cannot change the industry sector again afterwards.

The standard R/3 System contains the following industry sectors. The ID used to identify the industry sector internally appears in parentheses.

  • •Plant engineering and construction (A) Image
  • • Chemical industry (C)
  • • Mechanical engineering (M)
  • Pharmaceuticals (P)

The other sectors are for retail

 

 

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Product Costing & Material Master Data

ImageThe material master record contains all information needed for managing a material. This data is structured by views. The views correspond to the individual areas within the company in which the material is used.

Product Costing are relevant to the views of the Material Master defined in SAP:

  • assignment of material to a plant
  • Costing view
  • Accounting view

For the Costing View for Raw Materials , in the material master, the Quantity Structure should not be selected and Variance Key indicator.  For Semi Finished and Finished Products, there are also things to consider in the Material Master:

  • Base unit of measure, unit of measure in which stocks are recorded
  • “With Quantity Structure” indicator ,determines whether the material is generally costed using product costing or not.
  • “Material Origin” indicator,determines whether the material number is updated in the cost element itemization
  • Alternative BOM , determines which BOM alternative is used as basis for product costing with quantity structure
  • Group counter,determines which routing within the routing group is used in product costing
  • Special Procurement Type for costing, Used to indicate that the material is “sub-contracted;” if left blank, the special procurement type in the MRP view will apply.
  • ImageCosting Lot Size , indicates the quantity used as basis for costing; used to manipulate the SAP limitation on decimal places (maximum of 2).
  • Variance Key, indicates the control parameters for calculating variances.
  • Profit Center, indicates to which profit center the inventory valuation or material usage cost  be posted.
  • Co-Product Indicator, indicates if the material can also be used as a co-product in a joint production BOM.
  • Joint Production, contains the dialog box that allows the indication of the source-structure that determines how the order costs are distributed to co-products

For Accounting View of the Material Master, the following data should be also taken into consideration :

  • Material price based on the price control
  • Valuation class to determine what cost element/inventory account be assigned to material cost/inventory
  • the Currency and Price unit of the cost estimate

 

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Planning Strategies

Image Production must be planned either completely or partially especially for finished products with a lot of variants so that as many variants as possible can be delivered at the shortest notice possible. However, we must be careful  not to tie up unnecessary capital in current assets.

In SAP-PP, we can do different demand management so that various planning targets can be persued :

  • Planning at finished product or without assembly
  • Planning using Planning Bills of Material
  • Planning at assembly
It is important that planning is effective and effortlessly  as possible by the planner. Moreover, it is also important that planning is integrated in sales order processing. This means that planning must be checked with the independent requirements as soon as the sales order arrives. This ensures that the parts required for the sales order are either in production or are already in the warehouse.
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Production Strategies

ImageWe can do SAP-PP with the following Strategies:

  •   Make-to-stock production for mass production,
  •    Make-to-order production or make-to-order production
  •   as well as Production by lot size.
Depending on the production type, various production strategies are necessary. For each production process, you can determine optimum planning strategies. These strategies can be freely chosen and can be combined with each other. You can define the appropriate strategies per material and plant.
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Release of Multiple Purchase Requisitions SAP PM

ImageSCENARIO:

A Maintenance Planner creates a Multiple Maintenance Work Orders with several Non-Stock items (i.e Carpentry Services, Civil Works, etc. )

Instead of releasing them one by one, the Maintenance Planner can use the SAP transaction code ME55.

ImageFrom the report, just indicate the Release group, Plant, and the Materials Planner Controller. You can fill out the other fields if you want a specified number of Purchase Requisitions to appear.After filling out the fields, click on the execute button ( its the clock located on the upper left hand of the report =) ).

ImageTo release the Purchase Requisitions by clicking the release icon ( its the pencil with the check on top). Then click the back button and your done .

Its very simple, don’t you think so?

CANNOT MAINTAIN PM CATALOGS IN THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM?

ImageSCENARIO:

In a company’s Production Server, a Maintenance Planner wants to add a new Catalog in SAP Plant Maintenance using the Transaction Code QS41. But the Maintenance Planner was not successful because it is in Display Mode:

ImageAnd when you try to check your Authorization using the transaction code SU53, the Authority Check failed even if the Authorization team already set it up in your SAP ID Profile.

ImageThe reason it failed because the Maintenance of selected sets specially in QS41 requires transport request. And in the Production System, All Configurations in SAP are CLOSED.

In order to solve this, we should apply the SAP Note 736920 to correct the problem.

 

 

 

 

PLANT MAINTENANCE WORK CENTERS

ImageA work center can be:

  •  A machine
  •  A group of machines
  • A person
  • A group of persons

ImageIn SAP Plant Maintenance, Work Centers can be used in the following ways :

  • Responsible work center in the master record of the equipment or                     functional location.
  • Responsible work center in a maintenance item.
  •  Responsible work center in the task list header.
  •  Work center performing the work, specified in the task list operations
  •  Responsible work center in the order header.
  • Work center performing the work, specified in the order operations.

In SAP the Work Center can contain the following data:

  • The Basic Data contains the general data such as work center type, description, responsibility, and usage, as well as the standard value keys.
  • The Standard Values contain planning values for performing an operation.  On the basis of these planning values and with particular formulas, the system can calculate the costs, execution time, and required capacity of the work center.  The standard value key  and the rule for maintenance  in the work center determine which standard values should or can be specified in the operation and which units of measurement are to be displayed in the operation.
  •  Links create the interrelationship between work centers and other objects within the SAP System.  A work center can be linked to the following objects:

-Cost center

-Qualifications

-Positions

-Persons

 The Function of a Work Center in Plant Maintenance can be the ff:
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  • Costing:  Costing can be used to determine the costs of internal activity.  Its goal is to assign to the various cost objects the cost that were incurred by them.  Costing links the operation to Cost Accounting by means of the cost center and activity type maintained in the operation.  If the work center is used in an operation, standard values can be entered for the activity types specified in the work center.
  •  Scheduling:  Scheduling helps define the dates for carrying out work.  This requires that the time required by the work order operations are compared with the time available in the work center. When  the operations are scheduled, the system determines the start and end dates of the operations on the basis of scheduling formulas specified in the work centers.
  •  Capacity planning:  Capacity planning compares the capacity requirements of the work order operations with the available capacity of the work center.  Via work center hierarchies it is possible to aggregate the available and the required capacity from work centers at a lower level to work centers at a higher level.

PLANT MAINTENANCE MATERIALS ISSUANCE PROCESS

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A typical sample of Materials processing May it be a Stock item or Non Stock item is that the Maintenance Planner will Print a Material Issue Slip (MIS) along with the Maintenance Order Form. The Maintenance Planner will then issue these printed forms to the Mechanic(s) for job execution. The Mechanic will go to the Plant Stores where all the Spare Parts are kept and the Mechanic will give the Maintenance Order form & Material Issue Slip to the Store Clerk. The Store Clerk will now check for the reservation number in SAP, The Stores Clerk will perform a Goods Issue to the Reservation number that is based on the Material Slip in SAP. After that the Store Clerk will now physically issue the Spare Parts to the Mechanic and have him sign the Material issue slip. After the release of the actual materials, the Mechanic can perform the necessary repairs.

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