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■Business process: The same job must be performed at regular intervals
• Yearly inspection of fire extinguishers
• Acceptance test every 2 years
• Six yearly inspection of vessels as per pressure vessel regulations.


■ The processing screen for Single Cycle maintenance plans will be much simpler.
■ It is now possible to enter a maintenance plan and the corresponding maintenance item in one screen.
■ You can also enter a task list number on this screen and assign it to the maintenance item.
■ The following functions can be performed directly via pushbuttons:
         • Create task list
         • Select task list
         • Display task list with direct call up of operation overview
         • Details of the task (for example execution factor)
■ The Table-Control-Technique enables flexible display of the maintenance item list.

In addition, you have scheduling information directly in the maintenance item list.

ImageA Single Cycle Maintenance Plan can have several Maintenance Items.
The maintenance item contains data on the following areas:
  • Planning data:

Maintenance planning plant

Maintenance planner group

Order type

Maintenance activity type

Responsible work center

Business area

  •  Reference object
  •  Intervals



Cycle text

Task list


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ImageThe Maintenance Strategy consist of several maintenance packages. It is the scheduling rule for preventive maintenance.

ImageThe Scheduling Indicator determines the type of scheduling :


– time-based

  •     time-based with key date
  •     time-based as per factory calendar
  •     performance-based

A Maintenance Strategy can be assigned with Maintenance Packages.  The packages of a strategy can have different cycle units (for example month, year).  However, they must always have the same dimension (for example time).

ImageMaintenance Packages define how often certain operations are to be performed.As Part of the Maintenance Strategy,  Maintenance packages can be assigned to the operations of a task list.

The Parameters of a Maintenance Package are the following:

– Package number

   – Description

   – Cycle length

   – Unit of measurement

    – Hierarchy

When two packages fall due at the same time, the hierarchy determines which package    is carried out.

    – Offset

The offset determines the first due date of a package.

– Preliminary/follow-up buffer

The preliminary and/or follow-up buffer defines the tolerance of the envisaged start and end dates of a package.

Maintenance Task Lists can be created with preventive maintenance in mind.  The following steps are required to prepare tasks lists for use in Strategy Maintenance Plans. Where a Maintenance Strategy is defined in the Task List Header.

The different Operations of the task list are then assigned to Maintenance Packages to define the frequency at which the operations need to be carried out.




ImageMaintenance Task Lists describe a sequence of maintenance activities.

You can use them in order to standardize recurring activities, plan them more effectively, and create maintenance orders and maintenance plans more effectively.

In the Plant Maintenance component, maintenance task lists can be used for routine and planned maintenance work.  In addition, task lists specify the spare parts and tools required for the work steps and the time required to perform the work.


If you have maintenance task lists in your system, you can create maintenance orders and maintenance plans more effectively, because you refer to the operations and sequences specified in the maintenance task list.  This means that when you create a maintenance order for maintenance work which is already described in a maintenance task list, you only need to specify, this task list and the required times: you need not specify the individual operations because they are defaulted from the task list itself.  If the same maintenance work is required again shortly afterwards, you can again create a maintenance order and refer to the task list.

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ImageBills of material used in plant maintenance are called maintenance bills of material (maintenance BOMs).

The main goals of  bills of material on plant maintenance are:
  • ·Description of the structure

A maintenance BOM describes the structure of a technical object or material.  It can help you determine on what part of technical object maintenance work has to be carried out.


  • ·Listing of spare parts

A maintenance BOM is used in plant maintenance for linking spare   parts to a technical object or material.

BOMs are used in plant maintenance for the following functions:

  • Assigning spare parts to task lists
  • Assigning spare parts to maintenance orders
  • Localizing damages (identifying maintenance assemblies in maintenance notifications or orders)

We can Allocate Bill of Materials ( BOM ) in 2 ways:

1) Direct Allocation

  • ImageWhen you allocate a BOM directly, you link one object (piece of equipment, functional location) to a BOM.  The BOM can only be used by this object in maintenance orders, maintenance notifications, maintenance plan items, etc.

2) Indirect Allocation


  • When you allocate a BOM indirectly, you link the master record of a technical object with material master record which has its own BOM.  You do this with the help of the field “Construction type”.

Below is a sample of PLant Maintenance BOM defined in SAP:

ImageIn this example, in Plant Maintenance,  make an assembly ( the ones in yellow ) and combine it with a particular material ( the ones in red ) so that we can make a Bill of Material.

Note: All the Materials(spare parts) should be defined first in SAP so that you can use them. You can also attach a Text Item or Non-Stock Item also depending on your requirement.




ImageA work center can be:

  •  A machine
  •  A group of machines
  • A person
  • A group of persons

ImageIn SAP Plant Maintenance, Work Centers can be used in the following ways :

  • Responsible work center in the master record of the equipment or                     functional location.
  • Responsible work center in a maintenance item.
  •  Responsible work center in the task list header.
  •  Work center performing the work, specified in the task list operations
  •  Responsible work center in the order header.
  • Work center performing the work, specified in the order operations.

In SAP the Work Center can contain the following data:

  • The Basic Data contains the general data such as work center type, description, responsibility, and usage, as well as the standard value keys.
  • The Standard Values contain planning values for performing an operation.  On the basis of these planning values and with particular formulas, the system can calculate the costs, execution time, and required capacity of the work center.  The standard value key  and the rule for maintenance  in the work center determine which standard values should or can be specified in the operation and which units of measurement are to be displayed in the operation.
  •  Links create the interrelationship between work centers and other objects within the SAP System.  A work center can be linked to the following objects:

-Cost center




 The Function of a Work Center in Plant Maintenance can be the ff:
  • Costing:  Costing can be used to determine the costs of internal activity.  Its goal is to assign to the various cost objects the cost that were incurred by them.  Costing links the operation to Cost Accounting by means of the cost center and activity type maintained in the operation.  If the work center is used in an operation, standard values can be entered for the activity types specified in the work center.
  •  Scheduling:  Scheduling helps define the dates for carrying out work.  This requires that the time required by the work order operations are compared with the time available in the work center. When  the operations are scheduled, the system determines the start and end dates of the operations on the basis of scheduling formulas specified in the work centers.
  •  Capacity planning:  Capacity planning compares the capacity requirements of the work order operations with the available capacity of the work center.  Via work center hierarchies it is possible to aggregate the available and the required capacity from work centers at a lower level to work centers at a higher level.


ImageIn SAP Plant Maintenance, a Equipment is an individual, physical object that is to be maintained independently. It can be installed in a technical system or part of a technical system.


You should create an equipment master record for a technical object whenever:

Individual data has to be managed for the object

  • Damage to the object can lead to the need to maintain the object on a regular basis      and this must be documented
  • Technical has to be stored and analyzed over a long period of time.
  • The time for which the object is installed at a functional location needs monitoring.
The master  record of a piece of equipment contains several types of data:
  • General Data refers to information which normally does not change over the course of time, for example, acquisition value of the piece of equipment, size, year of manufacture.


  • Maintenance Data, Location Data and Sales Data refers to information which can change over the course of time, for example, maintenance planner group, responsible work center, location plant, cost center.
  • On the basis of the time-related data, you can monitor a piece of equipment dynamically, i.e., changes to the equipment in a certain interval of time.  If your system is customized appropriately, it automatically creates a new time segments whenever certain changes are made in the master record.  The time segment describes the use of the equipment.  Serialization Data is information you enter whenever you want to manage a piece of equipment not only as an individual object but also as an object subject to inventory management.  For example, as a material which can be stocked and sold to customers.  Partner Data is information describing particular responsibilities for a piece of equipment, for example, supplier, buyer.




Image A Functional Location is an Organizational unit that structures / represents the objects of a company according to functional, process-oriented, or spatial criteria.

A Functional Location represents the place at which a maintenance task is to be performed.


  • You should structure your technical system by means of functional locations whenever
  1. You want represent the structures of your company’s technical systems according to process-oriented/functional criteria.
  2. Maintenance tasks have to be carried out for certain parts of your technical system and this work has to be recorded.
  3. ·Technical data has to be stored and analyzed over a long period of time for certain parts of your technical system
  4. ·The costs resulting from maintenance tasks have to be reported for certain parts of your technical system
  5. ·You want to analyze the effects of the usage within the technical system on the installed equipment’s proneness to damage
  • The numbers given to the functional locations have a hierarchical layout: the layout of these numbers can be defined according to company criteria.
  • The master  record of a functional location contains the following data groups:

Location and maintenance data: for example, maintenance plant and cost center, structure indicator, superior functional location and responsible maintenance planner group.

Partner data: describes particular responsibilities for a functional location, e.g. supplier, buyer.

Below is a Typical sample of a Functional Location:


  • Every position in the structure of the technical system represents an individual functional location.
  • You can structure the different parts of the technical system in different degrees of detail.
  • Other typical examples for functional location structures are:
          ·Power plants
          ·Chemical or pharmaceutical processing plants
          ·Vehicles (streetcars, locomotives, cranes,….)
          ·Pipeline systems
          ·Production lines
          ·Steel Plants

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ImageSCENARIO: In a Particular Plant, There are Common Equipments, for example,  MOTORS , and PUMPS. In SAP Plant Maintenance, we can distinguish these common Equipments by creating a Material Item for Equipment so that it can have the Plant Maintenance Order Management functionality and we can be able to track their Maintenance History.

  • ImageA Material Master Record contains all the data required to describe and manage a material. However, you are not able to distinguish individual items of this material with the material master record alone.  This is why SAP provides material serial number management.  You use material serial numbers for serialized individual material items thus allowing you to customize your system in a way that makes the combination of material number and serial number unique.
  • You can create Equipment Master Records for material items which have a serial number. These items then have the complete functionality of PM maintenance order management and maintenance history.
  • Serial Number Profiles :  in order to be able to attribute serial numbers to material items when particular business transactions are carried out (e.g., goods issue), you first have to create serial number profiles in your system and enter them in the master records of the materials to be serialized.
  • There are many different transactions in which you may attribute material serial numbers to material items, for example, at goods receipt, at inspection, in the sales order, and at delivery.  Of course, you can attribute serial numbers during these business transactions only if a serial number profile is specified in the material master record.
  • Depending on the profile, one of the following two rules applies:

A: The material serial numbers must have been created in the system before they can be attributed to serialized materials.

B:  The material serial numbers can be created at the time they are to be  attributed to serialized materials.


ImageIf we set the Maintenance Order to TECO Status :

  • The maintenance order is given the status “technically completed”, that is, all maintenance work required on the order is designated as having being completed.
  • The maintenance order can then only be changed as follows:

– It can be locked and unlocked.

– The deletion flag can be activated.

  •  The location and account assignment data given to the maintenance order are fixed and can no longer be changed.  However, the order can still receive costs, for example invoices for material delivered and used.
  •  If no settlement rule has been maintained for the maintenance order it is creates automatically by the system.  Should this be impossible due to missing data, the system takes you to settlement rule maintenance (see settlement rule).
  •  All open purchase requisitions that still exists for the maintenance order are given a deletion indicator.
  •  All open reservations that still exist for the maintenance order are closed.
  • Capacities that have been planned for the maintenance order and that are still open, are closed.
  • The order data and the data from the maintenance notifications and usage histories are available in the maintenance history and can be used for the evaluation of the past work and the planning of new work.



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ImageHere is a sample on how a Refurbishment is being done in Plant Maintenance:

ImageProcurement of spare parts: For certain high-value components you procure spares in order to be able to replace the component immediately in the case of a breakdown.  Procurement of spares is handled by Material Management.  The spares are ordered and delivered.

Withdrawal of repairable spares/return of defective repairable spares: When a repairable spares item becomes defective, then it must be replaced with another suitable one.  The defective part is removed and sent back to the warehouse while a replacement spare part is withdrawn from the warehouse and installed in its place.
Creating a refurbishment order: When the number of defective repairable spares in the warehouse has reached a certain level, the maintenance planner in charge creates a refurbishment order.  The planner defines the timeframe for the refurbishment and plans all the operations materials, tools, etc. required for the refurbishment.
Order release: After planning has been completed, the refurbishment order is released.
Withdrawal from the warehouse: The defective/used repairable spares as well as any additional materials planned in the order which are needed for the refurbishment are withdrawn from the warehouse.
Confirmation: The work done, the refurbishment order is confirmed by the employees concerned.  These confirmations show the work progress.
Return to warehouse: The repaired/refurbished parts are returned to the warehouse in accordance with the planning in the order as a goods receipt.  To this end, you can call up the object list from the refurbishment order as a reference.  It helps you identify individual repairable spares.  If an item cannot be refurbished, cancel the reservation and post it to scrap.
Order completion: The order can be completed as soon as refurbishment is finished.